Vagus Nerve as Modulator of the Brain–Gut Axis in Psychiatric and Inflammatory Disorders

Vagus nerve has direct connections between your brain and organs (e.g. stomach, lungs, heart, spleen, intestines, liver and kidneys). It is vital for keeping our bodies healthy by regulating our immune system, controlling stress and reducing inflammation. The vagus nerve is an essential part of the brain–gut axis and plays an important role in the modulation of inflammation, the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, and the regulation of food intake, satiety, and energy homeostasis. Vagal tone[…]

Do you know that there are different variants of Hashimoto thyroiditis?

  For long Hashimoto’s thyroiditis has been characterized as a well-defined clinicopathologic entity. Though nowadays it is considered a heterogeneous disease (has several etiologies). There are different variants of Hashimoto thyroiditis: – fibrous, fibrous atrophic (Ord’s disease), or goitrous forms – IgG4 thyroiditis Thyroid autoantibody levels differ between goitrous and atrophic thyroiditis in that inhibitory TSH receptor antibodies are higher in Ord’s thyroiditis. These antibodies block cAMP (a messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction) production[…]

Depression associated with a significantly increased risk of autoimmune disease

The etiology of autoimmune disease is still a debate and unclear. A population-based study including approximately 1.1 million people was conducted using linked Danish registries to investigate the association between depression and the risk of autoimmune disease. The findings show that depression to be associated with a significantly increased risk of autoimmune disease, compared to those without a history of depression. Results suggest a general increased risk of autoimmune diseases following the onset of depression during[…]

Nicotine

  Smoking habit is a possible environmental trigger for several autoimmune diseases (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases), by increasing production of free radicals which provoke DNA alterations leading to autoimmunity, or even triggering protein citrullination with subsequent production of autoantibodies. Though the role of nicotine has been controversial. Some studies claim its protective and anti-inflammatory effect. Others are suggesting that nicotine increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and leads to release of intracellular components that act as auto-antigens. Different[…]

Hashimoto thyroiditis

Liquid or tablet Levothyroxine

      The liquid and soft gel formulations of levothyroxine allowing better L-T4 absorption in comparison to the traditional tablet form. Recent study compared the effects of thyroid replacement therapy with either liquid or tablet formulation of levothyroxine on mood states, self-perceived mental well-being and thyroid hormone profile in recently thyroidectomized patients. The results, after 2 months of liquid formulation of levothyroxine in recently thyroidectomized patients, show a greater efficacy of liquid formulation of[…]

hypothyroidism

Thyroid medication intake

  Levothyroxine sodium is widely prescribed to treat hypothyroidism. For long there is an agreement that levothyroxine should be taken before breakfast in order to prevent its interference with food or other medications. Some hypothyroid patients, despite taking thyroid medication, still report unbalanced thyroid hormone levels.A Randomized Double-blind study shows that Levothyroxine when taken at bedtime, at least 2 hours after dinner, significantly improves thyroid hormone levels. When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the plasma thyrotropin[…]

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