Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels), so common by autoimmune diseases, can be both a cause of and result of HPA axis dysregulation. Three endocrine glands: the Hypothalamus, the Pituitary gland, and the Adrenal glands and their interactions constitute the HPA axis. HPA axis controls our reactions to stress and body processes (e.g. immune system, energy storage and expenditure, digestion).
The main mechanisms to increase blood sugar levels are HPA axis hormones. The thyroid hormone is strongly influenced by HPA axis hormones.
The HPA axis is developing in our youth. When we experienced early adverse event (ACE) (above 60 % of people experienced at least one form of ACE), we are conditioned for a constant hyperarousal and reactivity. Our HPA stress axis can’t differentiate between real threat and perceived one. When the HPA axis lacks the necessary coordination, and its intricate communication pathways are aberrant, maintaining normal glucose levels is impaired.