Childhood adversity impacts adult health

                    Children who experience chronic stressors are vulnerable to emotional and physical health problems during their entire life. An adverse early life environment can induce changes on behavioural and metabolic responses later in life. Childhood adversity has been linked to elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from a number of chronic diseases. Physiological   and   biomolecular   studies   are   increasingly  establishing  how  childhood  exposure  to  chronic   stress   leads  […]

Vagus Nerve as Modulator of the Brain–Gut Axis in Psychiatric and Inflammatory Disorders

Vagus nerve has direct connections between your brain and organs (e.g. stomach, lungs, heart, spleen, intestines, liver and kidneys). It is vital for keeping our bodies healthy by regulating our immune system, controlling stress and reducing inflammation. The vagus nerve is an essential part of the brain–gut axis and plays an important role in the modulation of inflammation, the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, and the regulation of food intake, satiety, and energy homeostasis. Vagal tone[…]


  Smoking habit is a possible environmental trigger for several autoimmune diseases (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases), by increasing production of free radicals which provoke DNA alterations leading to autoimmunity, or even triggering protein citrullination with subsequent production of autoantibodies. Though the role of nicotine has been controversial. Some studies claim its protective and anti-inflammatory effect. Others are suggesting that nicotine increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and leads to release of intracellular components that act as auto-antigens. Different[…]

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