Smoking habit is a possible environmental trigger for several autoimmune diseases (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases), by increasing production of free radicals which provoke DNA alterations leading to autoimmunity, or even triggering protein citrullination with subsequent production of autoantibodies. Though the role of nicotine has been controversial. Some studies claim its protective and anti-inflammatory effect. Others are suggesting that nicotine increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and leads to release of intracellular components that act as auto-antigens. Different[…]

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